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What are the side effects after the Internet of Things spread?

发布时间:2019-03-14 浏览:37次

A major technological trend in the past few years has been the proliferation of IoT devices. The Internet of Things refers to smart, non-traditional, networked devices. For example, the iPad is not really qualified for IoT devices because it is at least a somewhat traditional computing device, but a WiFi-enabled refrigerator is definitely worth mentioning.

Today, there are a variety of IoT devices on the market, some of which are for consumers, while others are for business or even industrial use. Some IoT devices are very valuable, while others are very stupid. I mean, who really needs a spoon that can be wirelessly connected?

Although IoT devices may be useful, (well, maybe not spoons), the proliferation of such devices comes at a price. As a person who uses IoT devices extensively, I can tell you from the experience that the use of IoT devices may have some unintended consequences.

Wireless bandwidth congestion

The most obvious consequence of the surge in IoT devices is wireless bandwidth congestion. Each IoT device communicates with the network using a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz signal. The 5 GHz wireless network supports much more non-overlapping channels than the 2.4 GHz wireless network and is therefore less prone to congestion. Even so, bandwidth congestion can cause problems for 5GHz networks, especially in high-density areas.

Equipment maintenance

I have never heard of anyone talking about one of the side effects of the proliferation of the Internet of Things is maintenance costs. No, I am not talking about the cost of occasionally replacing a wireless access point, although this may also be a factor. I am talking about things that need to be replaced occasionally or the sensor is broken.

Some IoT devices are not hardwired and therefore run on batteries. For example, in my own home, I have dozens of sensors powered by a 3-volt CR-123A lithium battery. Although these batteries usually last for a few years, they still need to be replaced. If I choose to replace all the batteries at the same time, the replacement cost can easily reach hundreds of dollars, and replacing the battery can consume most of the afternoon. While this may not seem too bad, keep in mind that a business may use more battery-powered sensors than I use at home.

It is also important to consider the effects of battery dead. Ideally, the system should have some way to alert the administrator that the battery is low enough to replace the battery before the battery begins to affect the function.
The exhaustion of the IP address exceeds the capabilities of the router.

Another side effect of the proliferation of the Internet of Things is that IoT devices can quickly exhaust the wireless resources of an organization (enterprise). Wireless access points support a limited number of concurrent connections (the actual number of connections varies by brand and model of the access point), and each IoT device counts as a connection.

Similarly, the exhaustion of IP addresses is also a problem. At first, this may seem a bit unbelievable because the Class C IP address range (which is the default range used by most consumer WiFi access points) provides 254 host addresses. Even so, it is very easy to run out of hundreds of IP addresses.

Why the IP address is exhausted will happen so quickly, which is related to how the DHCP address lease process works. When a device enters a network, it contacts the server and requests an address. The DHCP server then leases the address to the device, and the lease is valid for a specific period of time. IP address leases usually last for a few days, but can be longer or shorter.

Each IoT device uses an IP address. Most IoT devices that may be found in a business environment are inherently semi-permanent, which means that each device effectively shrinks the pool of available addresses. When you also consider that users are using more and more devices, they will soon find out how fast the IP address will run out. It is not important that users do not use all the devices at the same time, because each device retains an IP address during its lease period.

Support and security issues

In a corporate environment, IoT devices can be a nightmare of support. The reason is that various departments of the company may install IoT devices without the knowledge or consent of the IT department. For example, the marketing department may purchase an 80-inch smart TV for presentation to potential customers, while the building maintenance department Smart door locks may be purchased, and IoT devices can also enter the enterprise in many other ways.

The problem with this is that people often expect IT departments to support anything connected to the network, which can result in IT resources being wasted on things like thermostats and door locks.

IT departments often do their best to ensure the security of traditional network endpoints. Computers that join the domain are usually patched to mitigate security vulnerabilities and are usually checked for security before they are allowed to enter the network. However, these same standard practices cannot be applied to IoT devices.

Take my wireless thermostat as an example. It has been in use for many years and has never been patched. Who knows if it contains vulnerabilities that could jeopardize the rest of my network?

On the other hand, some of my fitness devices also support WiFi. My treadmills are regularly patched. Even so, manufacturers never really point out the purpose of these patches, so it's hard to say whether these update patches address potential security issues, or whether they are just adding functionality to the device. .

This raises another issue, and even if IoT devices can be patched, you may not be able to integrate the device into your existing patch management solution.

Equipment life is another issue I have never heard of anyone discussing. I mentioned that my WiFi thermostat has been in use for many years, and considering that the thermostat is a relatively simple device with no moving parts, it can last for a long time.

With this in mind, imagine the consequences of having a 20-year-old IoT device on your network. This is a bit like the device that supports Windows 95 on the network today. Even if the hardware of the device is completely normal, you will have a lot of troubles to make the Windows 95 operating system work well with today's management and security mechanisms.

My guess is that after 20 years, the wireless network standard will be completely different from the standard used today. If this is the case, will an enterprise (organization) continue to support a completely outdated wireless network in order to keep the air conditioner and door locks working properly?

Still lacking policy

IoT devices are rapidly gaining popularity among organizations large and small. In many cases, IT departments have not adequately addressed the impact of these devices on enterprises. IT departments should give priority to creating support and exit mechanisms for IoT devices. In addition, devices that do not need to access resources on the back-end network should be confined to an isolated wireless network segment to prevent devices from compromising network security.


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